This Outlook is divided into three parts, each with its own contribution to the overall analysis of net-zero pathways. Part 1 (Chapters 2–5) presents a description of the current energy and GHG situation in Canada. More specifically, Chapter 2 provides a profile of energy production and trade in Canada; Chapter 3 discusses recent trends in consumption in different sectors; and Chapter 4 presents an assessment of the importance of energy in the Canadian economy. Since GHG emissions reduction scenarios require significant transformations to the way we use energy, these chapters provide details on the starting point. Chapter 5 then presents a profile of GHG emissions across the country, including beyond energy-related activities. It then provides an overview of current policies announced or in place for reducing emissions. These four chapters contain a thorough description of the energy system and GHG policy efforts across the country, with additional policy details provided in Appendix B.
Part 2 of this Outlook (Chapters 6 to 10) discusses the results obtained from the modelling. Contrasting the impacts of the different scenarios, Chapter 6 focuses on energy consumption, Chapter 7 on energy production, and Chapter 8 enlarges the discussion to the evolution of GHG emissions. Chapter 9 then delves further into key technological pathways and uncertainties that play an important role in net-zero futures, namely with regard to electricity generation, hydrogen, biomass and carbon capture and storage (CCS). Finally, Chapter 10 concludes Part 2 by presenting some of the notable variations across provinces in the topics covered elsewhere this section, to highlight differences in the challenges facing each province.
Part 3 (Chapters 11–14) provides additional perspectives to better understand the takeaways from the first two parts. Chapter 11 makes a comparison with other net-zero reports around the world to identify commonalities and distinctions in the expected role played by different technologies. Chapter 12 specifically addresses CCS and analyzes the limits and constraints to the use of various technologies to capture emissions with regard to their energy requirements. Chapter 13 focuses on industry, where transformations face a specific and complex set of challenges. Lastly, Chapter 14 provides additional modelling of the economic impacts of the transformations required by the results.
All three parts are essential in building coherent conclusions in Chapter 15, allowing for a thorough understanding of the challenges to come and the actions needed to effectively reach the desired objectives. This enables us to present policy recommendations to make the shift toward a net-zero future effective.