Conclusion—the challenges of transforming Canada’s energy system toward net-zero


Canada disposes of some of the richest energy resources in the world and is a leading producer of fossil fuels, uranium ore and hydroelectricity. These resources contribute to supporting Canada’s rich economy, both directly, as a major export, and indirectly, by providing low-cost energy for its own economy. However, this historic advantage has also allowed Canada to be one of the OECD’s lowest energy-productive economies by attracting energy-intensive industries and paying insufficient attention to the efficient use of energy.

This concluding chapter briefly underlines essential points on the current status of these questions in Canada and presents what the modelling teaches us about how Canada can transform its energy production and use if it wants to reach its GHG targets, both for the 2030 and longer-term horizons.