Analysis and writing

Institut de l’énergie Trottier – Polytechnique Montréal

e3c Hub – HEC Montréal


ESMIA Consultants inc.



The authors would like to thank the Trottier Family Foundation for their financial support producing this report, and for supporting previous initiatives related to energy and climate change, some of which have directly inspired this work. Our thanks also go to Natural Resources Canada, for their financial contribution and their precious collaboration throughout the project, and to Environment and Climate Change Canada, for numerous exchanges related to this work.


Responsibility for the content of this report lies solely with its authors. All reasonable precautions have been taken by the authors to verify the reliability of the material in this publication. Neither the authors nor any person acting on their behalf may be held responsible for the use which may be made of this information.


Langlois-Bertrand, S., Vaillancourt, K., Beaumier, L., Pied, M., Bahn, O., Mousseau, N. (2021). Canadian Energy Outlook 2021 — Horizon 2060, with the contribution of Baggio, G., Joanis, M., Stringer, T. Institut de l’énergie Trottier and e3c Hub
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About the Institut de l’énergie Trottier (IET)

The Institut de l’énergie Trottier (IET) was created in 2013 thanks to a generous donation from the Trottier Family Foundation. Its mission is to train a new generation of engineers and scientists with a systemic and trans-disciplinary understanding of energy issues, to support the search for sustainable solutions to help achieve the necessary transition, to disseminate knowledge, and to contribute to discussions of energy issues. Based at Polytechnique Montréal, the IET team includes professor-researchers from HEC, Polytechnique and Université de Montréal. This diversity of expertise allows IET to assemble work teams that are trans-disciplinary, an aspect that is vital to a systemic understanding of energy issues in the context of combating climate change.

About the e3c Hub

The e3c Hub is a multidisciplinary research, transfer and training center of HEC Montréal, specializing in environment, energy and circular economy. Its mission is to contribute to a transition towards a sustainable society and economy, in conjunction with various stakeholders. To do this, the e3c Hub conducts research, runs a scientific program, and designs and organizes training courses and summer schools.

About ESMIA Consultants

ESMIA offers a cutting-edge expertise in 3E (energy-economy-environment) integrated system modelling for the analysis of optimal energy and climate strategies. ESMIA puts forward a scientific approach guided by sophisticated mathematical models. The goal behind our implication is to offer solutions that allow achieving energy and climate goals without compromising economic growth. For 20 years, the ESMIA consultants provide a full range of services for the development of economy-wide energy system models for high-profile organizations worldwide. They also provide advisory services that focus on analyzing complex problems such as energy security, electrification, technology roadmap and energy transitions. ESMIA benefits for this purpose from its own integrated optimization model: The North American TIMES Energy Model (NATEM).
Last update: 05/05/2022